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ADVANCED WINEMAKING BASICS
Continued


Winemaking Additives and Cleansers

"If you think chemicals are bad, go somewhere else."




I am often asked to comment on various chemicals, additives, cleansers, and fining agents used in winemaking. While I do not use all of the products I will mention here, I admit that I use quite a few. In my opinion, if it protects the wine from spoilage or premature browning, improves the wine, overcomes a deficiency, or promotes a healthier fermentation, it should be used appropriately according to the instructions of the manufacturer. If you have a problem with chemicals -- your body is made up of chemicals -- go somewhere else for advice. I believe in using the best tools available to get the job done.

The descriptions below are from various sources, including my own notes, on-line and printed catalogs (primarily from Presque Isle Wine Cellars and Beer, Beer and More Beer), manufacturer or supplier descriptions (Scott Laboratories), and notes taken from various books and on-line writings. I apologize for not attributing each of them to its source.

This list is not inclusive. I know I have missed many good products. I am open to suggested entries. If the manufacturers would like to send me descriptive literature, I will attempt to update this listing as I deem appropriate.

Acid Blend:
A mix of citric, tartaric and malic acids. Primarily used in fruit wines to adjust acid levels. It is often used in recipes, but substitution of equal weights of tartaric or citric will give close to the same result and will produce a lower pH.
ACTI-ML (MLF):
Use as a nutrient supplement for malolactic cultures. Recommended usage is 5 grams for 5.5 gallons of wine.
ADEX-G (liquid pectic enzyme):
This enzyme complex provides maceration and depectinization for a range of acidic dark fruits, including Concord (Vitis labrusca) grapes, bramble fruits, currants and blueberries. It works well at lower temperatures. Typical usage is 0.5 to 1.5 ml per gallon (10 to 30 drops) for grapes and from 1.3 to 2.0 ml per gallon (26 to 40 drops) for some other fruits. It should be diluted 10 to 20 fold with water and may be added at crushing or in the fermenter. Increased yield at pressing is better with at least 30 minutes contact time.
AF-72 (antifoam liquid):
A silicone oil emulsion that reduces surface tension and thus reduces frothing. It works best in a full container with minimum surface area. Use about 5 drops before fermentation becomes violent, then 2 or 3 drops if foaming occurs thereafter.
Albucoll (fining agent):
Liquid natural egg white intended for clarification of red wines. Albucoll has similar characteristics as fresh egg whites: specific clarifying agent of structured red wines. This preparation will refine tannins and insures perfect clarification. Dosage: 0.3-0.8 ml/L.
Albumex (fining agent):
Granular, direct application Calcium-bentonite preparation for clarification and protein stabilization of juices and wines with a pH lower than 3.5. Applied at a rate of 4-12 grams per U.S. gallon of wine.
Alpet D2 Surface Sanitizer (cleanser):
Gone in 60 seconds. Quart-sized spray bottle. Kills bacteria and wild yeast after a 60 second contact period! A mixture of Isopropyl alcohol, water and a residual bacterial killer, QAT. Very handy to have on hand for santizing floor corkers, valving on conical fermenters after use or other bulky equipment. No rinse. Allow to air dry. Short contact time, safe for food contact surfaces.
Alpet E3 Plus Hand Sanitizer (cleanser):
This is Ethanol based hand sanitizer with moisturizers so it won’t dry out your skin. This is much better than the gel based hand sanitizers because it gets in to the hard to sanitize places better. It is much more effective than antibacterial soap. To use, spray nails first then the rest of the hand, rub together until dry.
Antifoam (liquid, AF-72):
A silicone oil emulsion that reduces surface tension and thus reduces frothing. It works best in a full container with minimum surface area. Use about 5 drops before fermentation becomes violent, then 2 or 3 drops if foaming occurs thereafter.
AR 2000 (Glycolytic Enzyme):
This material supplements natural enzyme activities to release aromatic terpenols and convert odorless glycosylated precursors into free aromatic terpenols characteristic of the grape variety. Normal usage is 0.07 to 0.11 gram per gallon of wine (2 to 3 grams per hectoliter) added at any time after fermentation. It is active from 10 degrees to 50 degrees Celsius (50 degrees to 122 degrees Farenheit) and from pH 2.8 to pH 5.0. It is inactivated by treatment with Bentonite at the rate of 0.4 grams or more per gallon. It is also very effective at settling white musts when added at pressing.
Argilact (fining agent):
This is a Laffort Oenologie proprietary blend of activated bentonite and soluble casein designed for the treatment of mold must and the gentle removal of oxidized phenolic compounds in wine. It is produced in an easy-to-use, soluble form and can be conveniently added during a pumpover. Addition of Argilact during cold settling in juice will reduce the potential for oxidation and will help protect against laccase activity. Argilact will also facilitate protein stability and remove certain oxidized phenolic compounds from juice or wine. Use 2.4 to 4 grams per gallon of juice when cold settling.
Ascorbic Acid:
An anti-oxidant which has been used as a partial substitute for sulfur dioxide. Results have been inconsistent and we can’t recommend it for this purpose. It is often even less effective if used in combination with SO2. Its best use is in the treatment of wine that has had some H2S progress to disulfides. Using 0.25 grams per gallon will cause disulfides to revert back to mercaptans, albeit slowly, which can then be dealt with using copper or böcksin.
Bactiv-Aid Malolactic Nutrient (MLF):
Composed of inactivated yeast, casein and cellulose, this material will provide additional organic nutrients for optimal growth of M-L bacteria. Use about 0.5 gram per gallon at the time a malo-lactic culture is added. Shelf life is about 18 months after opening the package. Not suitable as a yeast nutrient.
B-Brite (cleanser):
This proprietary cleaning agent uses active oxygen in a sodium carbonate base making it an ideal material for cleaning barrels. Contains no chlorine or sulfite. Normal usage is 1 Tblsp per gallon of water. An 8 oz tub will make 15 gallons of cleaner.
Bentonite (agglomerated fining agent):
This agent covers a wide spectrum of hazes. It is a montmorillonite clay which is especially good at adsorbing positively charged particles. It is the best agent for protein instability and it is easy to prepare. Its major downside is that it leaves a fairly bulky lees. Normal use is 1 to 2 grams per gallon unless used during fermentation when up to 5 grams per gallon may be used. It should be dispersed in a small amount of water for 1 or 2 hours, then thinned with wine and stirred into the batch to be treated. Settling will usually be complete within a week. Protein removal is best with lower pH wines and not as effective in high pH wines. It is used mainly with white wines.
Bentonite: Microcol Alpha (agglomerated fining agent):
Natural micro-granular sodium bentonite having a strong protein adsorption action, intended for stabilization and clarification of must and wines with a wide spectrum of pH. It has been specifically selected for (1) strong protein adsorption power of temperature sensitive proteins in a wide range of pH, (2) stability of the electrical charge, (3) excellent compaction of lees, (4) capacity to protect the aromatic intensity, and (5) improves brightness and color. Dosages: musts 1.5-3.0 grams per U.S. gallon, whites and rosé wines 1.2-2.4 grams per U.S. gallon, young red wines 0.2-0.4 grams per U.S. gallon.
Bioactiv (yeast nutrient):
This product is a yeast nutrient composed of sterols, long chain fatty acids, vitamins, amino acids and cellulose developed by Laffort Oenologie. Bioactiv has many applications. When inorganic nitrogen is NOT desired, Bioactiv can be added during a pump-over 6 to 8 hours post inoculation. If a white or rosé juice is too clear (low NTU), Bioactiv can be combined with Granucel to compensate for the low turbidity. Bioactiv can be added to a sluggish fermentation to boost fermentation performance. It can also be used to help restart a stuck fermentation by adding it 48 hours prior to adding the yeast or fermentation restarter. Dosage is 2 grams per gallon, except when used with Granucel cut bacl to 1 gram per gallon.
Biolees (aging enzyme):
The traditional practice of sur lie ageing in red and white wines is known to reduce the perception of acidity and phenolic bitterness while increasing sweetness. The specific peptite released from wine yeast during this process and responsible for its effect has recently been isolated as Biolees, a product that can be added to wine as early as late fermentation. This naturally occurring peptide product will contribute the positive sensory impact of sur lie aging and stirring while drastically reducing time and labor expenses. Contact with Biolees for three to five weeks contributes similar flavor and mouth feel components as does six months of lees ageing and stirring, eliminates specific harsh phenolics, improves balance, and protects the wine from oxidation. Dosage is approximately 1.5 grams per U.S. gallon. Shelf life, when protected against moisture, is 2-3 years.
BioTan (grape tannin):
Proanthocyanidins (100% grape tannin) compensates for poor tannic structure in wine (due to variety, ripeness or yield), stabilizes color and enhances aging potential.
BLC (Beer Line Cleaner) (cleanser):
A great all around cleaner, from carboys to bottles. Because it is in a liquid form it dissolves easily. It can also be used with cold or warm water. Use 1-2 oz per gallons for cleaning carboys or bottles. Use 1/2 oz per quart for cleaning beer lines and related parts.
Böcksin (silicate liquid) (treatment):
This material is used to eliminate or reduce hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan odors in wine without having to resort to treatment with copper, except when fairly high levels are present. Typical usage is 2 to 6 mL per gallon. Duration of treatment is 24 to 48 hours with vigorous mixing at least four times a day. A bench test is best practice. The treated wine should be filtered with medium nominal 0.45mu cartridge before it is tasted following treatment. It is compatible with a copper sulfate treatment should that be necessary. The fractions of this material separate in storage and must be well shaken before use to insure uniformity.
B.T.F. Iodophor Sanitizer (cleanser):
An iodine based, no rinse sanitizer safe for use with most materials, 5 to 10 minute contact time when used in the concentration of 1-2 tbls per 5 gallons. It will slightly stain vinyl tubing and some plastic parts over time, but is a time proven sanitizer and realatively cheap.
Calcium Carbonate (precipitated chalk) (treatment):
Used to reduce the acidity of wine or must. Because it reacts preferentially with tartaric acid over malic acid, separate out a small portion of the batch, treat it and then recombine the portions. Since pH increases concurrently a drop in acidity of more than 0.3 to 0.4% is seldom practical. Use calcium carbonate as early as possible to allow sufficient time for tartrate stability and the reduction in taste from calcium ions. 2.5 grams/gallon will reduce acidity by about 0.1%.
Campden Tablets (sanitizer):
Typically, 0.55 gram each. One tablet per gallon yields about 75 ppm. We recommend 1/2 tablet per gallon at each racking or 1 tablet every other racking. Crush the tablets and dissolve in water or wine before adding. For larger batches (5 gallons) most people prefer the powdered form of the chemical. Campden tablets may be either potassium metabisulfite or sodium bisulfite.
Canaton (fining agent):
Granular, direct application Calcium-Sodium-Bentonite preparation for clarification and protein stabilization of juices and wines with a pH higher than 3.5. Applied at a rate of 4-12 grams per U.S. gallon of wine.
Carbon (activated, S51 deodorizing) (treatment):
Used to remove odors and some color in wine. It is an acid washed, lignite based, steam activated carbon. It is non-selective, so both desirable and undesirable odors are removed. Stripping of flavor is a serious issue with wine, but much less so with juice. Typical usage is 0.2 to 4.5 grams per gallon. Certified Food & Chemical Codex. Doesn’t involve hazardous shipping issues which is a problem with decolorizing carbons.
Casein (fining agent):
Specific fining agent for white wines. A small dose can be used for clarification. Preventive treatment for maderization. Curative treatment to remove color from stained wines. Eliminates undesirable phenolic compounds. Dosage is 0.4 to 4.0 grams per U.S. gallon, depending on the application.
Casei Plus (fining agent):
This is a concentrated, powdered form of potassium caseinate produced from whole milk and used for the prevention and removal of oxidized wine components. The soluble "Plus" formulation of casein has 20-25% more protein than the regular casein formulation, greatly increasing its fining ability. Casei Plus helps eliminate oxidized phenolic compounds and iron casse. Even with high doses, it does not lend to over-fining. It generates a lower volume of lees than regular casein. For clarification, use 0.2 to 0.8 grams per gallon of wine. For oxidized wine, use 0.8 to 1.6 grams per gallon of wine.
Citric Acid:
It is found in small amounts in grapes and in larger quantities in many other fruits. It is metabolized during fermentation, so usually little remains at the end of fermentation. Addition of about 1 gram per 10 gallons will help prevent iron hazes, a malady which is no longer very common. Like tartaric acid it buffers to a nice low pH. It may be used as a substitute in place of tartaric acid to acidify a wine. 3.5 grams per gallon will increase the acidity by about 0.1%. It has the advantage of not upsetting tartrate stability.
Claro KC (liquid) (fining agent):
A two part fining agent containing Kieselsol and Chitosan. It is available in 150ml packets which is enough material for 6 gallons of wine. It is added directly to the wine followed by vigorous stirring. The wine is racked off the sediment about 7 to 10 days later. Formulated for either reds or whites. Shelf life is less than a year in the original package and much less once the package is opened.
Clarpress (liquid) (fining agent):
Highly concentrated liquid gelatin. Particularly suitable for clarifying press wines. Softens aggressive, astringent tannins. Clarifies rapidly, ensuring good stabilization of the wine's colloidal structure. It may be combined with VINOSOL 1 to treat turbidity. Dosage is 1.5 to 2.25 mL per U.S. gallon.
Colloidal Silica (30%) (Kieselsol, Silica Gel, NALCO 1072) (fining agent):
Used with bentonite or gelatin to give a more compact lees and with the latter as a tannin substitute. When used with gelatin it should be added at least a day earlier. It is also used by itself to remove colloidal hazes. It has a maximum shelf life of 1 year and must be kept from freezing. Normal usage is 0.5 to 1.5 grams per gallon.
CombiGel (fining agent):
A gelatin-caseinate-isinglass derivative in liquid form that is used to ensure clarification and good-filterability of young wines. It can be directly added to the wine and will remain effective even at low temperatures. Because all wines are different, the optimal dosage can only be determined by a bench-trial. However, in wines that are pre-settled, 1.2 ml per gallon is usually correct. In wines with a higher degree of turbidity, the dosage is augmented to 1.92ml - 5.67ml per gallon (depending on just how cloudy the wine is). Shake or stir before use to ensure product homogeneity and add it to the wine while stirring to thoroughly mix the two together. Rack off of the sediment in 3 weeks (a rough filtration of 5-10 microns is recommended). To store, keep absolutely frost-protected. Reseal opened containers tightly. Shake or stir before use.
Copper Sulfate (liquid, 1% solution) (treatment):
This material is used to remove hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans, the source of the ‘rotten egg’ smell. For best results use as soon as possible after fermentation, if racking the wine once or twice during fermentation didn’t eliminate the problem. Avoid adding excess copper. Use bench tests to determine the minimum effective dose. If in doubt about excess copper, contact us or consult a wine testing laboratory.
Crystalzyme Tinto (liquid pectic enzyme):
Designed for red wines. Tinto is formulated with several carbohydrase enzymes which hydrolyze pectin, reduce must viscosity and enhance organoleptic characteristics. It will increase color extraction and stability and increase the extraction of select polymeric tannins leading to rounder mouthfeel and increased complexity. Use 1.5 to 3 drops per gallon at crushing or at the time of yeast addition [1 mL = 20 drops].
Crystalzyme Vinostar (liquid pectic enzyme):
Designed for white wines, it contains a range of carbohydrase enzymes sufficient to hydrolyze the complex polysaccharides in all varieties of white wine grapes. When added to the crusher at the rate of 1.5 to 3 drops per gallon, it will depectinize the must and increase free run and total juice yield. It allows for cleaner fermentations with minimal vegetal notes.
Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) (yeast nutrient):
A source of nitrogen for yeast. It can be used to supplement prepared nutrients or can be used by itself. Use 1/2 to 3/4 grams per gallon (1/2 tsp per 5 gallons) of must to aid yeast and help reduce later problems with hydrogen sulfide.
Drifine (Isinglass) (fining agent):
A traditional proteinaceous fining agent derived from fish swim bladders and used mostly with whites and sparkling wines, but will also remove harsh tannins in reds. Unlike gelatin it does not need counterfining with tannin or kieselsols. Drifine is a pre-hydrolyzed form of isinglass which requires about 30 minutes hydration, at or near 60 degrees Fahrenheit, instead of the typical 2 to 6 days for standard isinglass; nor does it need pH adjustment Normal usage is 0.01 to 0.10 gram per gallon.
Drop Dead (Pyrethrin Aerosol) (pesticide):
Quick knock down of insects. Especially useful for controlling fruit flies.
Dynastart (yeast rehydration nutrient):
A yeast nutrient during the rehydration phase. This early application allows optimum conditioning of the yeast starter at rehydration phase, excellent fermentation kinetics, better alcohol tolerance, and a rapid and strong completion of fermentation. Its use limits synthesis of volatile acidity and sulphur compounds. Its use promotes the synthesis of yeast membrane constituents, improves overall assimilation of essentials compounds (such as nitrogen, amino-acids, sugars, etc.) and also encourages global yeast metabolism. It is rich in critical elements (minerals, vitamins, trace elements, amino acids, etc.) and bio-available survival factors (long chain unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, etc.) specially designed for preventive use in both white and red wines, high potential alcohol musts, and fermentations conditions made risky by technological choices.
Efferbaktol Tablets (sanitizer):
A convenient way to add sulphites to a barrel is to use pre-mearsured Efferbaktol tablets. The tablets are effervescent, much like an Alka-Selzer tablet, which helps them to dissolve. A 2 gram tablet will add 9 ppm sulphites to a 60 gallon barrel or 18 ppm sulphites to a 30 gallon barrel. The 5 gram size will add 22 ppm to a 60 gallon barrel. For best results break the tablet and introduce it in small pieces into the wine. If used in a larger stainless tank it is still necessary to stir the wine post addition.
Egg Albumin (fining agent):
A specific fining agent for Ultra-Premium wines destined for longer aging. Egg Albumin will refine the phenolic structure by limiting the most aggressive tannins. Dosage is 0.2-0.3 grams per U.S. gallon, or 60-100 ppm.
Exberry (grape skin extract) (red color intensifier):
A water-soluble natural food color extracted from grape skins. It adds a great deal of color, but is neutral in flavor. Though color is usually stable, a bench test is best. It should be stored in a freezer.
Extralyse (aging enzyme):
Preparation of pectinases and béta-glucanases (exo-1,3) specific to lees aging. Accelerates and improves yeast autolysis, releasing more molecules from the yeast. These compounds extracted increase roundness, sweetness and softness of wines. It also allows reducing the number of microorganisms in suspension. Dosage in white is 30 ppm and in red is 50 ppm.
Fermaid (yeast nutrient):
A complex nutrient which contains diammonium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, yeast hulls, thiamine, folic acid, niacin and calcium pantothenate. Helpful, but not necessary with most fresh grape musts, but needed for fermentation of concentrates, most fruit, vegetable and flower wines. Use of this material or SuperFerment may also reduce the incidence of reduced sulfur compounds and volatile acidity. Use 0.5 to 1.0 gram per gallon. Where high alcohol levels are desired, use up to 8 grams per gallon.
Fermaid K: (yeast nutrient)
A compounded formula that provides DAP, yeast hulls, vitamins and minerals. Best when used at the 8-10 Brix drop (1/3 sugar depletion). Fermaid K will help to prevent stuck fermentation and off-flavors. You do not need to add any additional fertilizers or DAP if you are using Fermaid K. Use approximately 1 gram per gallon.
Fermaid 2133 (autolyzed yeast nutrient):
This is pure autolyzed, spray dried yeast providing alpha amino nitrogen, B vitamins and the benefits of yeast hulls to help sluggish or stuck fermentations. Fermaid 2133 will help supplement the alpha amino nitrogen component of YANC. Unlike Fermaid K, Fermaid 2133 does not contain added ammonia salts (DAP) or micronutrients. Dosage is 1 gram per gallon of must.
Gecoll Supra (liquid fining agent):
Liquid gelatin, very pure raw material. High surface charge density. Initially targets aggressive and astringent tannins, then other tannins. Softens wines with aggressive tannins and red press wines. Combine with Siligel for white wines. Dosage is 1.1 to 3 mL per U.S. gallon.
Geladdort (liquid fining agent):
Liquid gelatin, reformulated in 1995. Extremely rapid clarification. Efficient stabilization. Combine with Siligel for white wines. Dosage is 1 mL per U.S. gallon.
Gelarom (liquid fining agent):
For aromatic wines, a liquid gelatin. Specific action on colloidal substances that mask aromas. Enhances aromas and light wines. Dosage is 0.75 to 2.25 mL per U.S. gallon.
Gelatin (50% Liquid, Gelsol) (fining agent):
Produced from cow skins and bones. Used to reduce astringency and bitterness and to clarify red or white wines. Often used as a co-fining agent with kieselsol or bentonite. A big advantage of this material when compared with Gelatin powder is its solubility. Normal usage is 0.06 mL to 0.47 mL per gallon. To prepare, mix with an equal volume of water.
Gelatin (powder, 100 bloom) (fining agent):
A traditional fining agent used to clarify whites or reds and to soften tannins or remove color in reds. Because it removes tannins it finds use in reds which are too astringent. It is best used during the first six months or there is a risk of increasing the perception of bitterness. When used with white wines, use an equivalent weight of tannin or kiesolsol to prevent a potential gelatin haze. Normal usage is 0.5 to 1.0 gram per gallon with whites and 1.0 to 2.0 grams per gallon with reds. To prepare, dissolve in warm water, (up to 120 degrees Fahrenheit) and add to the wine while still warm. The lees should be removed within two weeks. Unflavored gelatin, found in grocery stores is an acceptable substitute.
Gelatin Extra No. 1 (fining agent):
A heat soluble Gelatin available in powder form. It is composed of high molecular weight mass proteins that carry a big positive charge. Prepare by mixing in warm water and then adding during a transfer. Gelatin will help to reduce cloudiness by removing colloidal substances. It has an overall tannin polishing effect, but still preserves the phenolic compounds responsible for structure. Add at the rate of 0.2 to 0.35 grams per U.S. gallon.
Gelsol 50% Liquid (Gelatin) (fining agent):
Produced from cow skins and bones. Used to reduce astringency and bitterness and to clarify red or white wines. Often used as a co-fining agent with kieselsol or bentonite. A big advantage of this material when compared with Gelatin powder is its solubility. Normal usage is 0.06 mL to 0.47 mL per gallon. To prepare, mix with an equal volume of water.
Glo SS Plus (stainless steel cleaner):
Brightner for stainless steel.
Glycerine (Glycerol) (treatment):
An additive used to increase the sense of body and/or sweetness in a wine. It is advisable to run bench tests to determine whether it will actually improve your wine. Experiences have been mixed.
Glycerol (Glycerine) (treatment):
An additive used to increase the sense of body and/or sweetness in a wine. It is advisable to run bench tests to determine whether it will actually improve your wine. Experiences have been mixed.
Glycolytic Enzyme (AR 2000):
This material supplements natural enzyme activities to release aromatic terpenols and convert odorless glycosylated precursors into free aromatic terpenols characteristic of the grape variety. Normal usage is 0.07 to 0.11 gram per gallon of wine (2 to 3 grams per hectoliter) added at any time after fermentation. It is active from 10 degrees to 50 degrees Celsius (50 degrees to 122 degrees Farenheit) and from pH 2.8 to pH 5.0. It is inactivated by treatment with Bentonite at the rate of 0.4 grams or more per gallon. It is also very effective at settling white musts when added at pressing.
Go-Ferm (yeast nutrient):
Used during wine yeast rehydration to provide yeast with the proper micronutrients and vitamins before the yeast is added to the must. The higher concentration allows it to be more easily absorbed by the cells. The rate of useage is 1.25 grams per 1 gram of yeast, which should then be mixed with 17 mls of water per gallon of must.
Granucel (yeast nutrient):
This product is composed of cellulose powder. It can be used on highly clarified white and rosé juice to add back solids and to help keep yeast in suspension. It can also be incorporated into an existing nutrient blend to help promote a healthier, faster fermentation. Granucel should be added at the beginning of the fermentation to freshly pressed juice. Use 1.5 to 2 grams per gallon, except when used with Bioactiv cut back to 0.35 grams per gallon.
Grap’Tan E (grape tannin powder):
This is used during aging to help protect against oxidation, stabilize color and improve tannin structure. It is added after malo-lactic fermentation. Normal dosage ranges from 0.18 to 1.15 grams per gallon for reds and 0.08 to 2.75 grams per gallon with whites.
Grap'Tan PC (grape seed tannin powder):
This material, extracted from grape seeds, is rich in proanthocyanidin content and is used to compliment the fining of red and rose wines, stabilizing protein in whites and stabilizing color in red wines during maturation, especially in oak barrels. It augments the antioxidant and bactericidal effects of SO2 and inhibits oxidizing enzymes. It may be added to finished wines up to within three weeks of bottling Normal usage is 0.2 to 1.1 gram per gallon with reds and 0.08 to 0.35 gram per gallon with whites. It adds more tannin structure and less roundness than Grape’Tan S.
Grap'Tan S (grape skin tannin):
It is added to finished wines up to within three weeks before bottling to achieve phenolic balance, gain mid-palate character, reduce vegetative character, stabilize color in red wines, and reduce a "hot" alcohol taste. It adds more roundness and less tannin structure than Grap’Tan PC. Typical range of use is 0.2 to 1.1 gram per gallon (180 to 1150 grams per thousand gallons) to red wines and 0.08 to 0.35 gram to white wines.
Grap’Tan V (grape tannin powder):
This is used during fermentation and is added directly after crushing. It helps color stabilization with reds, improves tannin structure, reduces vegetative aromas and improves protein stabilization with whites. Typical dose is 0.2 to 1.1 gram per gallon with reds and 0.08 to 0.35 gram per gallon with whites.
Hazyme C (liquid amylitic enzyme):
An enzymatic complex which is effective in preventing starch hazes in apples and other fruits. Since it converts starches into sugars it makes a suitable substitute for Aspergillus oryzae as the active agent in Kojii which is used in Sake production. It will work well under cold conditions.
Ichtyocolle (fining agent):
For high-quality white wines, a fish-based fining agent available in powder form. It does not cause over-fining. Wine becomes perfectly clear and brilliant. Dosage is 0.04-0.12 grams per U.S. gallon.
Isinglass (powder, Drifine) (fining agent):
A traditional proteinaceous fining agent derived from fish swim bladders and used mostly with whites and sparkling wines, but will also remove harsh tannins in reds. Unlike gelatin it does not need counterfining with tannin or kieselsols. Drifine is a pre-hydrolyzed form of isinglass which requires about 30 minutes hydration, at or near 60 degrees Fahrenheit, instead of the typical 2 to 6 days for standard isinglass; nor does it need pH adjustment Normal usage is 0.01 to 0.10 gram per gallon.
Keller-Pur (treatment):
Potassium Caseinate preparation offers the best in tannin addition management technology. The product is best characterized by its very fast and very compact lees formation, allowing for shorter effective treatment times and a minimization of product loss due to adsorption into the lees. The caseinate will adsorb negatively impacting polyphenols and vinegar precursors. It's also effective against substances which can bind out SO2, thereby requiring higher concentrations and more frequent additions of sulfite. While this fining will tend to soften the wine and reduce astringency due to its removal of insoluble tannins, it does not negatively impact the wine's color, aroma or flavor concentrations, and carries no risk of excessive fining because it only removes unstable, insoluble tannins. Bench trials are recommended to determine the lowest effective concentration required. Direct addition formula -- simply stir the wine vigorously, sprinkle in slowly, and continue stirring until all the additive is dissolved. Rack off in 2-4 days.
Keller Tannin de Chene (treatment):
Very nice, big, round tannin. Complexes with color components preventing them from oxidation, enhances structure. Helps to round out and intensify smaller wines from high yield vineyards. Tannin de Chene will also complex and preserve value-giving polyphenols in the wine. Derived from French oak. Add post fermentation and prior to any other fining operation. Bench trials are recommended to determine the most advantageous dosage rate. Dissolve tannin in a small amount of wine and then add back to wine, stirring to ensure uniform distribution.
Keller Tannin RM (treatment):
A specialty tannin product derived from French oak and specifically engineered to protect Botrytis infected red musts and wines from the effects of undesired oxidation and loss of color. It has also been shown to have a positive impact on red wines made from underripe grapes where the already low color intensity must be stabilized to prevent any further loss. Bench trials are encouraged to determine the most effective dosage. Add just prior to bulk aging. Dissolve the tannin in a small volume of wine and stir back in to ensure even distribution.
Keller Tannin Supra (treatment):
A high quality tannin extract derived entirely from French Limousin oak and intended for use in wine destined for aging. Offering all around organoleptic improvement, this tannin softens and rounds out a wine while simultaneously protecting value-giving polyphenols and preventing unwanted oxidation of color compounds in the wine. To Use: Add to the wine during pump over or with stirring to ensure even distribution. Add after alcoholic and ML fermentation have completed but prior to any other fining operation.
Kieselsol (Silica Gel, NALCO 1072, 30% Colloidal Silica) (fining agent):
Used with bentonite or gelatin to give a more compact lees and with the latter as a tannin substitute. When used with gelatin it should be added at least a day earlier. It is also used by itself to remove colloidal hazes. It has a maximum shelf life of 1 year and must be kept from freezing. Normal usage is 0.5 to 1.5 grams per gallon.
Klerzyme 201 (liquid pectic enzyme):
This enzyme system has been formulated specifically for Vitis labrusca grapes. It will work with other grapes and fruits, but is not as cost effective as Rapidase Super. It works well at lower temperatures and is not affected by SO2 levels below 250ppm. Normal usage is 1 to 2 drops per gallon. It should be stored under refrigeration to maintain viability.
Kolorfine (Potassium Caseinate) (fining agent):
Used with white wines to clarify and to reduce oxidized odors and freshen the wine. It will also remove some brownish color pigments. To prepare, hydrate in water for 2 to 3 hours and add to the wine while vigorously stirring since it will coagulate in acidic solutions in a few seconds. Powdered skim milk is an acceptable substitute. Typical dose is 1 to 2 grams per gallon, but as much as 3 grams per gallon when excess color is the main problem.
Lafase 60 (clarification enzyme):
Allows a fast and efficient clarification of red juices. Decrease viscosity of musts and values pressing juices. Dosage for free run juice is 5-10 ppm, for pressed juice is 10-30 ppm.
Lafase Clarification (clarification enzyme):
For red wines, clarification of both free run and pressing juices. Dosage is 20-40 ppm.
Lafase Fruit (extraction enzyme):
A new enzyme for maceration developed at SARCO. This preparation, concentrated and purified in cinnamoyl esterase and anthocyanases, permits to optimise the extraction of aromatic molecules and theirs precursors from red grape to produce wines with fruitiness, color and roundness. When applied during a cold soaking with grapes at optimal maturity, it reduces the maceration time or even replaces this cold soaking step to produce a fruit forward wine. Also, it allows carrying out a fast, specific and soft extraction limiting mechanical actions and excessive physical destruction of skins.
Lafase HE (extraction enzyme):
Optimizes and speeds up the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from the skins. Improved clarification and the yield of free run juices. Dosage is 30-50 ppm.
Lafase HE Grand Cru (extraction enzyme):
For traditional long macerations with or without pre-fermentative maceration to produce aging wines structured, with colour and elegant tannins. Favours the extraction of more stable phenolics (anthocyanins and tannins more polymerised), aromas and their precursors and other molecules of the grapes. Dosage is 30-50 ppm.
Lafase Thermo (clarification enzyme):
For red wines, preparation specific to the clarification of juices obtained by thermo treatment (Flash-detente, thermo winemaking,etc.). Permits the degradation of pectic chains and a better stability of phenolic compounds extracted. This preparation is used to reconstitute the enzymatic pool of the grape degraded by the thermo treatment. Used on cooled down juices (under 50°C). Dosage is 30-50 ppm.
Lafazym Arom (extraction enzyme):
Pectinase preparation with beta-glucosidase activities to favor the terpenic aroma expression in white wines (muscate, Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Chenin, etc.). Dosage is 50 ppm.
Lafazym CL (clarification enzyme):
Intense clarification, rapid settling of white and rosé juices. This concentrated preparation of pectolytic enzymes hydrolyses pectins from grapes. Dosage in white is 5-10 ppm and in rosé is 10-20 ppm.
Lafazym Extract (extraction enzyme):
Specific for skin maceration of white grapes at low temperature for the extraction of aroma precursors and varietal aromas in a shorter maceration time. Dosage is 20-30 ppm.
Lafazym Press (extraction enzyme):
Allows better pressing conditions while efficient at low pressure to produce higher volume of free run juice, optimization of aromatic precursors extraction, and preservation of the sensorial quality (low phenolic extraction). It also helps to shorten the pressing cycle (time and cost efficiency). Used on grapes during the filling up of the press. Dosage is 20-50 ppm.
Lallzyme Cuvee Blanc:
Enzyme for maceration/skin contact when dealing with white wine grapes. This enzyme will give greater mouthfeel and more complex aromatics than without. Minimum contact time is 4 hours, however, 6-12 hours is best. If you macerate more than 4 hours, you will need to keep the temp. of the must below 55 F and do an SO2 addition at the crush. Dose rate is .1 grams per gallon of must.
Lallzyme EX:
Specially formulated enzyme preparation for improved color intensity and stability, greater mouthfeel, and enhanced fruity, floral, spicy flavors in wine. Used primarily in red wines, but can also be used in white wines for increased extraction. Based on the activity of a blend of cellulases, hemicellulases, and pectinases, this preparation aids in the extraction, then stabilization of water soluble phenols found in cells of grape skins. A dry, granular product requiring no special storage conditions prior to use. To use, dissolve into a sufficient amount of water (usual ration is 1:100) and add to must with your other additions prior to onset of fermentation.
Liqui-Gum (conditioner):
A specialized, pre-liquefied Gum Arabic preparation with notable positive impacts on color stability, mouthfeel and iron turbidity in young wines. Liqui-Gum has also been shown to improve the quality of the carbonation (mousseaux) and mouthfeel in sparkling wines when added to the wine during the secondary, carbonating fermentation. Liqui-Gum should be added either just before or just after the final filtration and bottling of the wine. Package provides recommended dosage.
Lysozyme (MLF stabilizer):
Use Lysozyme for controlling lactic acid bacteria growth in your wine. Isolated from egg whites, this enzyme will degrade the cell wall of gram positive bacteria, but will not affect yeast or gram negative bacteria such as Acetobacter. Lysozyme can be used for both red and white wine malolactic fermentation. Directions for use: Make a 10% solution of Lysozyme in water (100 grams per liter of water). Add directly to must, juice or wine and mix well. Allow 24 - 48 hours for reaction to complete. To delay malolactic fermentation: red wine - add to grapes at 100 - 200 ppm, or 0.38 - 0.76 grams per gallon; white wine - add to must at 200 - 300 ppm, or 0.76 - 1.14 grams per gallon. To block malolactic fermentation: white wine - add to must or wine at 300 - 500 ppm, or 1.14 - 1.90 grams per gallon. When blending partial and complete MLF wines: add immeditatley after blending at 300 - 500 ppm, or 1.14 - 1.90 grams per gallon, to reduce the risk of further malolactic fermentation. Within several days all MLF bacteria should expire. Stabilizing wine after MLF is complete: Add to barrel during storage at 250 - 500 ppm, or 0.95 - 1.90 grams per gallon.
Malic Acid:
This is the predominant acid in apples and most other temperate fruits, and together with tartaric, accounts for nearly all of the acidity in grapes. Both malic and citric acids are used for deficiencies in other fruits. Its main disadvantage when acidifying is that it buffers to a fairly high pH, so it won’t help much with high pH musts.
Malostart (MLF):
This product accelerates the kinetics of malolactic fermentation and detoxifies the wine environment before inoculation. contains assimilable nutrients for growth including carbon from sugars, free amino acids, peptides, vitamins and minerals. The inert yeast absorb inhibitory compounds and help detoxify the wine for longer and healthier bacteria survival. Cellulose helps keep the bacteria in suspension and provides for some detoxification. When used in conjunction with commercially selected malolactic strains, Malostart promotes healthy inoculation and quick fermentation without producing undesirable biogenic amines. Malostart may be added during the racking of red wines or at the end of primary fermentation in white and rosé wines. It should be suspended in ten times its weight in water and added to the wine 24 hours before inoculation. This allows for the detoxification to take place. Malostart may also be used to help restart a sluggish or stuck malolactic fermentation. Suspend Malostart in water as noted above and add to the wine immediately. It will help detoxify the environment and provide nutrients for the bacteria. Reinoculation with a new ML culture may or may not be needed. Use 0.9 grams per gallon of wine.
Mostonit Perl Extra (fining agent):
Granular, bentonite direct addition, special formulation designed to target tannins and bacteria from musts infected with mildew or botrytis. Bentonite fining of a must or juice will remove free nitrogen as well, so yeast must be properly fed in order to prevent the development of off flavors and the possibility of a stuck ferment.
Mostonit Spez. K (fining agent):
Granular, direct addition Activated Carbon / bentonite preparation for the treatment of musts/juices. Activated carbon component aids in the adsorption of residues of liquid insecticides and fungicide sprays. The carbon also helps inhibit nitrogen removal by the bentonite resulting in less nutrient needing to be added back into the must for healthy fermentation.
NALCO 1072 (Kieselsol, Silica Gel, 30% Colloidal Silica) (fining agent):
Used with bentonite or gelatin to give a more compact lees and with the latter as a tannin substitute. When used with gelatin it should be added at least a day earlier. It is also used by itself to remove colloidal hazes. It has a maximum shelf life of 1 year and must be kept from freezing. Normal usage is 0.5 to 1.5 grams per gallon.
Nutrex 370 (Yeast Hulls) (yeast nutrient):
Consists of the insoluble fraction of yeast cells. Supplies lipids and sterols to the fermenting yeast and adsorbs some of the fatty acids which tend to be toxic to yeast. While not truly a nutrient, it helps the yeast remain in better condition, allowing them to complete the fermentation quicker. Normal usage is 1.8 to 3.6 grams per gallon.
Oenosteryl Tablets (syabilizer):
A combination of potassium metabisulfite and potassium bicarbonate in pill form which can simply be dropped into a batch of wine where it effervesces and mixes without having to be stirred. It is available in three sizes, containing 2, 5 or 10 grams of SO2. The 2 gram size would supply 60 ppm of SO2 if added to 5 gallons.
Opti'Malo (MLF):
This is a natural nutrient developed specifically for malolactic fermentations. It is a blend of inactive yeasts rich in amino acids, mineral cofactors, vitamins and high cell wall polysaccharide content and cellulose. The cellulose provides surface area to help keep the bacteria in suspension and to help adsorb toxic compounds that may be present at the end of primary fermentation. Opti'Malo is particularly suited for MBR 31 although it works well with all malolactic strains. Opti'Malo should be suspended in a small amount of water or wine and added directly to the wine at the same time as the malolactic culture. It should not be added to the rehydration water. Use 0.9 grams per gallon of wine.
Opti-Red (yeast nutrient):
An inactive yeast product which improves body, color stability, and mouthfeel in red wines. Using Opti-Red in the must makes polysaccharides available to complex with polyphenols as soon as they are released. This early complexing results in red wines with more intense color, rounder mouthfeel and better tannin integration. Use at the rate of 1 gram per gallon of red wine. Dilute Opti-Red in 4 times it weight of water or must and add at beginning of fermentation.
Opti-White (yeast nutrient):
A natural yeast product for white wines to increase mouthfeel, avoid browning, increases the wines protein stability and volatile thiols, and protect fresh aromas during aging. Opti-White is rich in polysaccharides and has high anti-oxidative properties. Add Opti-White to the juice at the onset of fermentation. Use at the rate of 1.9 grams per gallon. Dilute Opti-White in 4 times it weight of water or must and add at beginning of fermentation.
PBW (Professional Brewery Wash) (cleanser):
A non-caustic buffered alkaline detergent safe for use on stainless steel, glass, brass and plastic. Removes tartrate crystals from tanks without the dangers associated with caustic soda. Use 2 oz per 5 gallons of warm water. Easily rinses off surfaces.
Pearex Adex (liquid pectic enzyme):
This enzyme complex provides pectinase and hemicellulase activities that are effective in achieving higher sugar and juice extraction and breakdown of solids in pome fruits (pears, apples and quinces) and other light colored fruits. It is active between 50 degrees Farenheit and 130 degrees Farenheit and within the pH range of 3.0 to 5.0. Typical usage is 0.5 to 1.5 ml per gallon (10 to 30 drops per gallon). It should be diluted 10 to 20 fold with water and may be added at crushing or in the fermenter.
Polylact (fining agent):
This is a blend of PVPP and casein in a cellulose base. The blend allows for more complete action on phenolic compounds while avoiding the overstripping often associated with higher doses of pure product casein or PVPP. Polylact acts evenly on monomeric phenolic compounds. It can be used both as a curative and as a preventative against browning and pinking in white juice or wine. To treat oxidized must, add at the beginning of cold setting at the dose of 1.2 to 2.8 grams per gallon. To protect for oxidization, add during pumpover at the dose of 0.6 to 1.2 grams per gallon.
Phosphoric Acid:
Typically sold in 30% solution. This is used to lower pH with a minimum increase in acidity with wines which are cursed with high acidity and high pH at the same time. It gives a bigger drop in pH for a given increase in acidity than any of the organic acids. It is strongly recommended that you use a pH meter when using this material. Typical usage is 2 to 8 mL per gallon.
Polyclar V (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone or PVPP) (fining agent):
This is the same material as Polyclar VT, except that it is more finely milled. It is faster acting and only half as much by weight is needed to get the same effect, but it settles very slowly, so you will need to filter to remove the particles. Typical dosage is 0.5 to 1.5 grams per gallon.
Polyclar VT (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone or PVPP) (fining agent):
This will provide rapid clarification and reduction of bitterness in most wines as well as brown colors in many whites. It will improve the shade, but lower the intensity of color in reds. It is preferred to Polyclar V for more rapid settling and when wine will not be filtered, but is not as fast acting. Normal usage is 1 to 3 grams per gallon.
Polylact (fining agent):
A combination of PVPP and caseine, used in preventive or curative treatment for oxidasic casse. Its synergistic action avoids the indirect negative effects caused by large doses of PVPP or Caseine alone. Dosage for prevention is 0.57 to 1.14 grams per U.S. gallon, for cure is 0.95 to 2.66 grams per U.S. gallon.
Potassium Bicarbonate (treatment):
Used to reduce the acidity of musts and wines. Avoid using if the pH is above 3.5 or if you need to drop the acidity more than a maximum of about 0.3%. Only about 70% of the acid reduction potential is realized unless you cold stabilize after treating the wine. It causes a higher rise in pH for a given drop in acidity in comparison with calcium carbonate, but it can be used much closer to bottling time. 3.4 grams per gallon will give a potential 0.1% drop in acidity.
Potassium Bitartrate (Cream of Tartar) (precipitant):
Used as a seeding agent to promote cold stabilization. Add to wine at the rate of 2 to 5 grams per gallon, followed by vigorous stirring. Stir the batch daily. It is not a substitute for chilling the wine, but will aid in getting tartrate crystals to drop out faster at any given temperature.
Potassium Carbonate (treatment):
Used to lower acidity levels in wine. 3.8 grams per gallon will reduce acidity by about .1%. Requires that the fermenter be stored cold for several weeks after application. During the period of cold stabilization the tartaric acid drops out as potassium bitartrate. Doing a trial run with a small amount is strongly suggested to determine exactly what the drop in acidity will be. Calcium carbonate can be used in a similar manner and does not require cold stabilization. However it adversely affects flavor, takes month to precipitate out of solution, and preferenially reduces tartaric acid first before affecting malic or citric acid.
Potassium Caseinate (Kolorfine) (fining agent):
Used with white wines to clarify and to reduce oxidized odors and freshen the wine. It will also remove some brownish color pigments. To prepare, hydrate in water for 2 to 3 hours and add to the wine while vigorously stirring since it will coagulate in acidic solutions in a few seconds. Powdered skim milk is an acceptable substitute. Typical dose is 1 to 2 grams per gallon, but as much as 3 grams per gallon when excess color is the main problem.
Potassium Metabisulfite (sanitizer):
Theoretically it is 57% SO2. 1/4 teaspoon per 5 gallons yields about 40 to 45 ppm. One gram per gallon equals roughly 150 ppm SO2. Replace at least every 18 months and keep in a dry place. Sodium bisulfite acts in the same way, but may not be used in wine produced by US commercial wineries.
Potassium Sorbate (stabilizer):
A yeast inhibitor to use with wines containing residual sugar. It does not inhibit malolactic bacteria and should they grow in the wine after sorbate is added a distinct off odor of geranium leaves may be produced in the wine. To be sure that doesn’t happen it is imperative that you have at least 40 ppm of free SO2 in the wine when you add sorbate. Normal usage is 1 to 1-1/4 grams per gallon or 200 to 250 ppm. Store potassium sorbate in a dry place out of direct sunlight. Even with proper care, shelf life is only 6 to 8 months. There is never any reason to add potassium sorbate to a dry wine.
Pro Foam Plus VF41 (cleanser):
Chlorinated alkaline foam cleaner which can be sprayed on and will cling for deep claning using the Hose End Foamer or another commercial foamer. Pro Foam Plus may be brushed on though it may not adhere as effectively.
Quertanin (fining agent):
This material is used to inhibit oxidation of color in red wines and to conserve the bouquet and prevent oxidation in whites while giving a fuller mouthfeel. It adds to the structural backbone of both reds and whites. Normal usage is 0.5 to 1.0 gram per gallon in reds and 0.25 to 0.5 gram per gallon with whites.
Rapidase Ex-Color (pectic enzyme powder):
A pectic enzyme which is effective in extracting more color during red wine fermentations, improving polyphenol extraction, color intensity and stability and clarity. Typical usage is 0.07 to 0.11 gram per gallon (2 to 3 grams per hectoliter). It is only effective at color extraction if added while still in maceration (on the skins).
Rapidase Vino Super (liquid pectic enzyme):
This enzyme improves juice yield and provides faster and more compact settling of juices as well as improved filterability. It is active over a range of 45 degrees Farenheit to 131 degrees Farenheit with a doubling of activity for each 10 degrees Farenheit rise in temperature. If stored in a refrigerator loss of activity is 3 to 5% per year, but over 20% at ambient temperatures. Normal usage is 1.5 to 3 drops per gallon (1 mL = about 20 drops). Double the rate for Vitis labrusca grapes and triple the rate for most other fruits. Peaches and plums have very high pectin levels and need even higher levels. It is designed primarily for whites, because red color extraction is not very effective, but is still widely used with reds when free run juice yield and settling are important.
Sal Soda (Soda Ash) (cleanser):
This unscented inexpensive alkaline cleaning agent works about as well as most of the more expensive proprietary materials. It is effective with grape strains.
Silica Gel (Kieselsol, NALCO 1072, 30% Colloidal Silica) (fining agent):
Used with bentonite or gelatin to give a more compact lees and with the latter as a tannin substitute. When used with gelatin it should be added at least a day earlier. It is also used by itself to remove colloidal hazes. It has a maximum shelf life of 1 year and must be kept from freezing. Normal usage is 0.5 to 1.5 grams per gallon.
Siligel (fining agent):
For all types of wine. Colloidal silica solution (300g/L) may be used with all organic fining agents. It must always be added before organic fining agents. Improves flocculation and settling. Enhances filterability and optimizes settling of the lees. Prevents over-fining. Dosage is not more than 1 mL per U.S. gallon.
Soda Ash (Sal Soda) (cleanser):
This unscented inexpensive alkaline cleaning agent works about as well as most of the more expensive proprietary materials. It is effective with grape strains.
Sorbistat K (Potassium Sorbate) (stabilizer):
Insures against renewed fermentation in wine when residual sugar is present post-fermentation. Add at the rate of .75 grams per gallon (200ppm) in conjunction with .3 grams of potassium metabisulphite (50ppm) per gallon. Note: It will not stop an active fermentation.
Sparkolloid (powder, hot mix) (fining agent):
A proprietary alginate based fining agent which covers a broad spectrum of hazes. It requires a little more care in preparation than bentonite, but generally gives excellent clarity, requires no tannin addition and is quite neutral in respect to flavor changes. Normal usage is 1/2 to 1-1/2 grams per gallon.
Star San (cleanser):
An acid based no rinse sanitizer, used in many commercial breweries. It is a special blend of food quality acids often found in both soft drinks and toothpaste. It is odorless, tasteless and safe for most materials except soft metals. Contact time is 1 to 2 minutes when a 1 oz/5 gallon mixing solution is used. Will not stain vinyl tubing or other plastic parts. This is a foaming product -- the foam will sanitize and it stays longer on a surface. This means it is specially great for hard to sanitize equipment and places where you can not keep full liquid contact all the time.
SuperFerment Yeast Nutrient and Energizer:
A blend of minerals, vitamins, growth factors and trace elements. Contains all elements needed for optimal yeast reproduction and metabolism. It will help prevent sluggish or stuck fermentations and promotes a rapid start with musts and worts. It contains yeast hulls (ghosts) which helps ensure a quick and complete fermentation. Normal use is 0.75 to 1.5 grams per gallon.
Super Kleer (liquid) (fining agent):
A two part fining agent containing Chitosan and Kieselsol. It is available in 150ml packets which is enough material for 6 gallons of wine. It is added directly to the wine followed by vigorous stirring. The wine is racked off the sediment about 7 to 10 days later. May be used with reds or whites. Shelf life is less than a year in the original package and much less once the package is opened.
Tanin Galalcool (GA) (treatment):
This is used to inhibit laccase activity in white grapes with botrytis mold and to stabalize color and inhibit oxidation in white musts and wines. It is added to the grapes in bins or to white musts, usually during the first two or three pumpovers or stirrings. Normal usage is from 0.25 to 0.50 gram per gallon.
Tanin Galalcool SP (Soft Palate) (treatment):
This is similar to Tanin Galalcool and contributes an additional character of softness and fullness on the palate. While not increasing sugar, Tanin Galalcool SP gives a perception of sweetness while improving mouthfeel and texture in white wines. This tannin may be used in red wines when very subtle changes are desired. Bench-trial to determine dosage is recommended. Probable dosage will be between 0.20 to 1.20 grams per gallon of wine.
Tanin Plus (treatment):
This is a soluble wood tannin extracted from toasted American oak. It works in much the same manner as Quertanin but with an additional vanillin oak character and smooth finish. Tanin Plus works well in combination with other tannins (Tan'Cor, Galalcool) in very low doses. Use 0.4 to 0.8 grams per gallon of red wine, half that per gallon of white wine.
Tanin VR Supra (VRS) (treatment):
This is used to inhibit laccase activity in grapes that have botrytis mold, increase color stability, and to prevent oxidation in reds. Sprinkle over grapes in a bin or add as a solution at the crusher at the rate of 1 to 2 grams per gallon. If added in the fermenter it will minimize oxidation and stabilize color with red musts.
Tannin (natural) (treatment):
This form of tannin is derived from plant rather than animal sources. The addition of about one gram (1/2 teaspoon) per five gallons of wine will help in clarification of most fruit, vegetable and honey wines. Before fining a white wine with gelatin you should add either Silica Gel (Kieselsol) or tannin. It may be difficult to get tannin into solution immediately (put tannin in glass and add water or wine, then whip or stir vigorously until in solution). Usually not needed with red wines which contain more tannins.
Tan'Cor (treatment):
This product was developed for addition to red wine post-fermentation to improve overall structure and to help protect the wine from oxidation during aging. It is composed of proanthocyanidins and ellagic (oak duramen) tannins that integrate easily into young wine. Tan'Cor seems to balance well with full, fruity wines like Syrah and Zinfandel. It also is useful in intense, up-front fruity Cabernet Sauvignon and any wine that noticeably lacks smooth tannin structure. It is best to conduct bench-trials to ascertain dosage, which may vary from 0.4 to 1.5 grams per gallon of wine prior to bulk aging for 6-8 months.
Tartaric Acid:
The characteristic acid of grapes which is found in no other common fruit. Low acid grapes from warmer climates will benefit from its addition; the wine will clear more readily and will keep and taste better. This material buffers to a nice low pH. Wine lower than about 0.5% titratable acidity will benefit from its addition. About 3.7 grams per gallon will increase acidity by 0.1%.
Ultra Clear (liquid) (fining agent):
A two part rapid fining agent containing separate positively and negatively charged sachets of silicic acid. It is available in box form containing enough sachets for five 1-gallon batches of wine. It is added directly to the wine followed by vigorous stirring. The wine is racked off the compacted lees about 7 days later. May be used with reds or whites. Contains no animal products (as opposed to Claro KC and Super Kleer). Manufacturer is Contessa (United Kingdom). Shelf life has not been determined, but works fine after two years at room temperature.
V.B. Clarifier (gel) (fining agent):
A specific clarification product for high-quality white wines. A fish-based fining agent available in ready-to-use gel form. Wine becomes perfectly brilliant. Dosage is 2.66 to 5.7 grams per U.S. gallon.
Viniclar (fining agent):
This is a proprietary formulation of PVPP. It is composed of macromolecules derived from synthetic polymerized vinyl-pyrolidone. Viniclar does not leave any residue after precipitation since it is insoluble in water and alcohol. It complexes with phenols and attracts low molecular weight catechins and other compounds responsible for darkening wine’s color. It can be used in conjunction with bentonite or casein. Rack off the lees or filter after using Viniclar. As a preventative, use 0.6 to 1.2 grams per gallon of juice. As a curative, use 1.2 to 2 grams per gallon of wine. For oxidized wine, use 1.6 to 3.2 grams per gallon of wine.
Viniplus Lactizyme (lysozyme) (stabilizer):
An oenological lysozyme preparation used to control gram positive lactic acid bacteria at several stages of the vinification process. Commercial wineries must file a petition letter to BATF to use it. A copy of the petition letter is available from GusmerCellulo Co. White wines can normally be prevented from going through an MLF by the addition of 500 ppm of Lysozyme (1.9 grams per gallon). It can also be added to sluggish or stuck fermentations to reduce the risk of volatile acid production and increase the chances of reviving the sugar fermentation. Derived from eggs.
Vinosol (fining agent):
A very effective, 2-part, rapid clarification product, specially developed to replace clarifying agents made from dried blood. It contains two compounds -- Vinosol 1, a colloidal silica solution (300g/L), and Vinosol 2, a colloidal gelatin solution with specific physical-chemical characteristics. Accelerates flocculation and settling and optimizes settling of the lees. Dosage is 0.75 mL per U.S. gallon of Vinosol 1, then 0.75 mL per U.S. gallon of Vinosol 2.
WLC (Wine Line Cleaner) (cleanser):
Similar to BLC, but crafted more towards wine and soda build-up in draft systems. It removes sugars, tannins and tartrate deposits, wine molds, yeast, etc. that can affect the color, taste, bouquet, clarity and appearance of wine, wine coolers and other beverages. Directions: Add 1/4 oz per quart of warm/hot water.
Yeast Energizer (yeast nutrient):
An extraordinary nutrient, energizer is useful when making wines of high alcoholic content (over 14%) and to restart fermentation when the secondary fermentation seems "stuck." Yeast energizer contains many ingredients not found in normal nutrient, such as Riboflavin and Thiamine. The energizer is best used by dissolving 1/2 tsp. in 1/2 to 1 cup of the must or wine before adding. If the fermentation is truly "stuck" and not simply run out, the energizer may be dissolved in 1/4 cup must or wine and 1/2 cup warm (75 degrees F.) water and a pinch of fresh wine yeast added and allowed to bloom under cover over a 12-hour period. An additional 1/4 cup of wine or yeast is then added and the yeast given another 12 hours to multiply before the enriched solution is added to the fermentation bottle.
Yeast Fertilizer (yeast nutrient):
A yeast fertilizer/energizer composed of dead yeast cells that contains many essential nutrients for yeast growth. Use 1/2 gram per gallon (1/2 tsp per 5 gallons).
Yeast Ghosts (yeast nutrient):
This material consists of the insoluble fraction of whole yeast cells, supplying lipids and sterols to the fermenting yeast and will adsorb fatty acids which may contribute to sluggish fermentations. Normal usage is 0.45 to 0.9 gram per gallon. At rates above 3 grams per gallon, off flavors and odors may occur.
Yeast Hulls (yeast nutrient):
Consists of the insoluble fraction of yeast cells. Supplies lipids and sterols to the fermenting yeast and adsorbs some of the fatty acids which tend to be toxic to yeast. While not truly a nutrient, it helps the yeast remain in better condition, allowing them to complete the fermentation quicker. Normal usage is 1.8 to 3.6 grams per gallon.


Last update was July 22nd, 2006.




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